giovedì 29 gennaio 2015

Il sito nuragico di Sa Osa, Cabras: le meraviglie dei pozzi N, U,V: semi di Vitis vinifera del 1350-1150 a.C.

#vinonuragico#monteprama.blogspot

Per un articolo di giornale in italiano sullo stesso argomento si veda: Maria Teresa Manuelli, Non furono i Fenici ma i Sardi i primi a coltivare la vite. Ecco come si è scoperto, IlSole 24 Ore-FOOD24, 28 January 2015


************
Da: Diego Sabato , Alessia Masi , Caterina Pepe, Mariano Ucchesu, Leonor Peña-Chocarro, Alessandro Usai, Gianna Giachi, Chiara Capretti, Gianluigi Bacchetta, Archaeobotanical analysis of a Bronze Age well from Sardinia: A wealth of knowledge, Plant Biosystems, 2014, DOI:10.1080/11263504.2014.998313. 

Abstract. In 2008, during a rescue excavation in the Sa Osa area, near the town of Cabras (Sardinia, Italy), a Nuragic settlement was discovered. The excavation revealed numerous pits, wells and structures dug by the local communities between the Early Copper Age and the Iron Age. These structures were interpreted as elements of a settlement mainly involved in primary production. The most remarkable structure is Well-N, radiocarbon and archaeologically dated to the Late Bronze Age (fig. 1), which has yielded large amounts of waterlogged plant remains, animal and fish bones and pottery. Despite the limited set of samples, the combination of macro-remain and pollen analyses in this unique context provides important information useful for exploring not only local subsistence systems but also human impact on the surrounding environment.

Grapes and figs are the most abundant remains together with other fruits and edible vascular plants. Remains of melon and mulberry were identified being the earliest remains of these two species for Western Europe. Their presence may confirm early trade between Nuragic people and the eastern Mediterranean and/or African coasts. Intentional selection of wood suggests practices associated to the collection of raw material for specific technological demands. The presence of intestinal parasites in the pollen record points to the possible use of the well as a cesspit, at least in its later use, and this is one of the earliest evidence of this type of structures in prehistoric contexts.

Fig. 1. In rosso, il sito di Sa Osa dell'Età del Bronzo; in giallo, il sito di Santa Giusta dell'Età del ferro. 1) Excavation area of Sa Osa site; 2) Well N; 3) S.U. of investigation; 4) Prunus spinosa endocarps from Sa Osa; Da:  Marco Sarigu, Mariano Ucchesu,  Oscar Grillo,  Gianfranco Venora,  Maria Cecilia Loi, Gianluigi Bacchetta, PRUNUS L. ENDOCARPS FROM TWO ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES IN SARDINIA: CHARACTERIZATION BY IMAGE ANALYSISCongreso Internacional de Etnobotánica 2014, Córdoba, España. 17 - 21.11. 2014

*********************
Da:  Marco Sarigu, Mariano Ucchesu,  Oscar Grillo,  Gianfranco Venora,  Maria Cecilia Loi, Gianluigi Bacchetta, PRUNUS L. ENDOCARPS FROM TWO ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES IN SARDINIA: CHARACTERIZATION BY IMAGE ANALYSISCongreso Internacional de Etnobotánica 2014, Córdoba, España. 17 - 21.11. 2014

[..]Sa Osa (Middle-Late Bronze age).  The archaeological site of Sa Osa has been object of an intense excavation activity following the construction of a new road (2008-2009). The excavation documented numerous wells dug by local communities during the Chalcolithic and Bronze Age (Usai et al. 2012). Since 2011 there is an ongoing project to study samples from four wells, all of them extremely rich in pottery and biological remains preserved by charring and/or waterlogging. The most interesting of them (well N, S.U. 171) was excavated down to 4 m and yielded a huge amount of animal and fish bones and plant macro remains. More than 50% of the sediment volume was made up of waterlogged seeds of Ficus carica L. and Vitis vinifera L. Other findings, were represented by seeds of Papaver L., Olea europaea L., Juniperus oxycedrus L.Myrtus communis L., Cucumis melo L. and endocarps of Prunus spinosa L. The wide range of wild plants remains retrieved demonstrates the richness of the ancient local environment. The 14C data on seeds dates well N to the Late Bronze Age (1286-1115 2σ cal. B.C.; 1276-1088 2σ cal. B.C.)[..]. 

Fig. 2: pottery from the shafts of Sa Osa, late Bronze Age. Da:Orrù M., Grillo O., Lovicu G., Venora G., Bacchetta G. 2013. Morphological characterisation of Vitis vinifera L. seeds by image analysis and comparison with archaeological remains. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 22:231-242

*********************
Fig. 3: la datazione dei semi non abbrustoliti (uncharred pips) di Vitis vinifera rinvenuti nei pozzi N, U e V del sito nuragico di Sa Osa, Cabras. I più antichi semi (1391-1126 a.C.), hanno caratteristiche morfologiche intermedie fra semi odierni di vite selvatica e viti coltivate ancora oggi in Sardegna. I semi dal pozzo N, leggermente più giovani (1276-1088 a.C.), sono invece più simili alle moderne cultivars sarde. Da: Mariano Ucchesu,  Martino Orru, Oscar Grillo, Gianfranco Venora, Alessandro Usai, Pietro Francesco Serreli, Gianluigi Bacchetta, Earliest evidence of a primitive cultivar of  Vitis vinifera  L.during the Bronze Age in Sardinia (Italy)Vegetation History and Archaeobotany, 12/2014; DOI: 10.1007/s00334-014-0512-9


Abstract The discovery of the Nuragic culture settlement of Sa Osa, Cabras-Oristano, Sardinia, has made it possible to investigate the domestication status of waterlogged uncharred grape pips that were recovered from three wells dating from the Middle and Late Bronze Age (ca. 1350–1150 BC). Applying the stepwise linear discriminant analysis method, a morphological comparison of archaeological seeds and modern wild and cultivated Sardinian grapes pips was performed to determine the similarities between them. The results showed that the archaeological seeds from the Middle Bronze Age have intermediate morphological traits between modern wild and cultivated grape pips from Sardinia. In contrast, the analyses performed on the archaeological seeds from the Late Bronze Age showed a high degree of similarity with the modern cultivars in Sardinia. These results provide the first evidence of primitive cultivated Vitis vinifera in Sardinia during the Late Bronze Age (1286–1115 cal BC, 2r). This evidence may support the hypothesis that Sardinia could have been a secondary domestication centre of the grapevine, due to the presence of ancient cultivars that still exhibit the phenotypic characteristics of wild grapes.[..]
Da: Mariano Ucchesu,  Martino Orru, Oscar Grillo, Gianfranco Venora, Alessandro Usai, Pietro Francesco Serreli, Gianluigi Bacchetta, Earliest evidence of a primitive cultivar of  Vitis vinifera  L. during the Bronze Age in Sardinia (Italy)Vegetation History and Archaeobotany, 12/2014; DOI: 10.1007/s00334-014-0512-9

Fig. 4: sezioni dei pozzi N, U e V di Sa Osa, con l'indicazioni delle unità stratigrafiche di rinvenimento dei semi di uva. Da: Mariano Ucchesu,  Martino Orru, Oscar Grillo, Gianfranco Venora, Alessandro Usai, Pietro Francesco Serreli, Gianluigi Bacchetta, Earliest evidence of a primitive cultivar of  Vitis vinifera  L. during the Bronze Age in Sardinia (Italy)Vegetation History and Archaeobotany, 12/2014; DOI: 10.1007/s00334-014-0512-9

Fig. 5: semi di uva trovati nei pozzi N, U e V di Sa Osa. Da: Mariano Ucchesu,  Martino Orru, Oscar Grillo, Gianfranco Venora, Alessandro Usai, Pietro Francesco Serreli, Gianluigi Bacchetta, Earliest evidence of a primitive cultivar of  Vitis vinifera  L. during the Bronze Age in Sardinia (Italy)Vegetation History and Archaeobotany, 12/2014; DOI: 10.1007/s00334-014-0512-9

*******************************
Vd. anche: